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Design class (CEX3231) preliminary charts + excel datasheet

This truss design activigy is a compulsary activity. So that you must be carefull of making this design report. This chart is a part of the design report. I hope this will be helpfull to you.

This chart is filled with member forces, dead & imposed loads, wind ward loads and lee ward loads. Word document is suitable for pratt type trusses. Fink type truses have few additional raws. Excel datasheet will helpfull in calclating same repeating formulas.

Word document

Excel datasheet

Concrete Technology – Theory and Practice

Download Link : click here

Index Of the Book

 

1. CEMENT 1–26

  • General 1
  • Early History of Modern Cement 2
  • Manufacture of Portland Cement 5
  • Wet Process 6
  • Dry Process 9
  • Chemical Composition 14
  • Hydration of Cement 17
  • Heat of Hydration 18
  • Calcium Silicate Hydrates 19
  • Calcium Hydroxide 20
  • Calcium Aluminate Hydrates 21
  • Structure of Hydrated Cement 22
  • Transition Zone 22
  • Water Requirements for Hydration 25

2. TYPES OF CEMENT AND TESTING OF CEMENT 27-65

  • Types of Cement Types of Cement 28 Types of Cement
  • ASTM Classification 28
  • Ordinary Portland Cement 29
  • Rapid Hardening Cement 30
  • Extra Rapid Hardening Cement 30
  • Sulphate Resisting Cement 31
  • Portland Slag Cement 31
  • Application of GGBS Concrete 33
  • Quick Setting Cement 33
  • Super Sulphated Cement 34
  • Low Heat Cement 34
  • Portland Pozzolana Cement 35
  • Advantages of PPC 36
  • Grading of PPC 37
  • Application 37
  • Air-Entraining Cement 37
  • Coloured Cement 38
  • Hydrophobic Cement 39
  • Masonry Cement 39
  • Expansive Cement 40
  • IRS-T40 Special Grade Cement 40
  • Oil-Well Cement 41
  • Rediset Cement 41
  • CONTENTS
  • (xii)
  • Properties of Rediset 41
  • Applications 42
  • High Alumina Cement 42
  • Hydration of High Alumina Cement 42
  • High Alumina Cement Concrete 43
  • Refractory Concrete 44
  • Very High Strength Cement 45
  • Macro-defect free Cement 45
  • Densely Packed System 45
  • Pressure Densification and Warm Pressing 45
  • High Early Strength Cement 46
  • Pyrament Cement 46
  • Magnesium Phosphate Cement 46
  • Testing of Cement Testing of Cement 47 Testing of Cement
  • Field Testing 47
  • Fineness Test 48
  • Sieve Test 49
  • Air Permeability Method 49
  • Standard Consistency Test 50
  • Setting Time Test 50
  • Initial Setting Time 52
  • Final Setting Time 53
  • Strength Test 53
  • Soundness Test 54
  • Heat of Hydration 55
  • Chemical Composition Test 56
  • Test Certificate 56

3. AGGREGATES AND TESTING OF AGGREGATES 66-118

  • General 66
  • Classification 67
  • Source 67
  • Aggregates from Igneous Rocks 68
  • Aggregates from Sedimentary Rocks 68
  • Aggregates from Metamorphic Rocks 68
  • Size 69
  • Shape 70
  • Texture 73
  • Measurement of Surface Texture 74
  • Strength 74
  • Aggregate Crushing Value 75
  • Aggregate Impact Value 76
  • Aggregate Abrasion Value 76
  • Deval Attrition Test 76
  • Dorry Abrasion Test 76
  • Los Angeles Test 77
  • Modulus of Elasticity 77
  • Bulk Density 78
  • (xiii)
  • Specific Gravity 78
  • Absorption and Moisture Content 78
  • Bulking of Aggregate 80
  • Measurement of Moisture Content of Aggregates 81
  • Drying Method 82
  • Displacement Method 82
  • Calcium Carbide Method 82
  • Electrical Meter Method 82
  • Automatic Measurement 82
  • Cleanliness 83
  • Soundness of Aggregate 85
  • Alkali-Aggregate Reaction 85
  • Factors Promoting Alkali-Aggregate Reaction 86
  • High Alkali Content in Cement 88
  • Availability of Moisture 89
  • Temperature Condition 89
  • Mechanism of Deterioration of Concrete 89
  • Control of Alkali Aggregate Reaction 89
  • Thermal Properties 90
  • Grading of Aggregates 91
  • Sieve Analysis 93
  • Combining Aggregates to obtain Specified Gradings 94
  • Specific Surface and Surface Index 96
  • Standard Grading Curve 100
  • Crushed Sand 105
  • Gap Grading 107
  • Testing of Aggregates 107 Testing of Aggregates
  • Test for Determination of Flakiness Index 107
  • Test for Determination of Elongation Index 109
  • Test for Determination of Clay and Fine Silt 110
  • Test for Determination of Organic Impurities 111
  • Test for Determination of Specific Gravity 112
  • Test for Bulk Density and Voids 112
  • Mechanical Properties of Aggregates 113
  • Test for Aggregate Crushing Value 113
  • Test for “Ten per cent Fines” Value 114
  • Test for Aggregate Impact Value 114
  • Test for Aggregate Abrasion Value 115

4. WATER 119-123

  • Qualities of Water 119
  • Use of Sea Water for Mixing Concrete 122

5. ADMIXTURES AND CONSTRUCTION CHEMICALS 124-217

  • General 124
  • Admimxtures 125
  • Construction Chemicals 126
  • Plasticizers (Water Reducers) 126
  • (xiv)
  • Action of Plasticizers 128
  • Dispersion 128
  • Retarding Effect 128
  • Superplasticizers (High Range Water Reducers) 129
  • Classification of Superplasticizer 130
  • Effect of Superplasticizers on Fresh Concrete 131
  • Compatibility of Superplasticizers and Cement 131
  • Factors Effecting Workability 136
  • Type of Superplasticizers 136
  • Dosage 136
  • Mix Composition 137
  • Variability in Cement Composition 137
  • Mixing Procedure 137
  • Equipment 138
  • Site Problems in the use of Superplasticizers 138
  • Slump Loss 140
  • Steps for Reducing Slump Loss 140
  • Other Potential Problems 142
  • Effect of Superplasticizers on the Properties of Hardened Concrete 143
  • New Generation Superplasticizers 144
  • Carboxylated Acrylic Ester (CAE) 144
  • Multicarboxylatether (MCE) 147
  • Retarders 148
  • Retarding Plasticizers 149
  • Accelerators 149
  • Accelerating Plasticizers 158
  • Air-entraining Admixtures 158
  • Air-entraining Agents 159
  • Factors Affecting Amount of Air-entrainment 159
  • The Effect of Air-entrainment on the Properties of Concrete 160
  • Resistance to Freezing and Thawing 161
  • Effect on Workability 162
  • Effect on Strength 163
  • Effect on Segregation and Bleeding 166
  • Effect on Permeability 169
  • Effect on Chemical Resistance 169
  • Effect on Sand, Water and Cement Content 169
  • Unit Weight 170
  • Alkali Aggregate Reaction 170
  • Modulus of Elasticity 170
  • Abrasion Resistance 170
  • Optimum Air Content in Concrete 171
  • Measurement of Air Content 171
  • Gravimetric Method 171
  • Volumetric Method 173
  • Pressure Method 173
  • The Water Type Meter 173
  • Pozzolanic or Mineral Admixtures 174
  • (xv)
  • Pozzolanic Materials 175
  • Natural Pozzolans 175
  • Artificial Pozzolans 175
  • Fly Ash 176
  • Effect of Fly Ash on Fresh Concrete 179
  • Effect of Fly Ash on Hardened Concrete 180
  • Durability of Concrete 180
  • High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFA) 180
  • Properties of (HVFA) Fresh Concrete 181
  • Bleeding and Setting Time 181
  • Heat of Hydration 182
  • Curing of (HVFA) Concrete 182
  • Mechanical Properties of (HVFA) Concrete 182
  • Durability of (HVFA) Concrete 182
  • Use of High Volume Fly Ash 183
  • Silica Fume 183
  • Indian Scenario 184
  • Available Forms 184
  • Pozzolanic Action 185
  • Influence on Fresh Concrete 185
  • Influence on Hardened Concrete 186
  • Mixing 186
  • Curing 186
  • Rice Husk Ash 186
  • Surkhi 187
  • Metakaolin 188
  • Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) 189
  • Performance of GGBS in Concrete 191
  • Fresh Concrete 191
  • Hardened Concrete 191
  • Damp-Proofing and Water-Proofing Admixtures 192
  • Gas Forming Agents 193
  • Air-Detraining Agents 194
  • Alkali Aggregate Expansion Inhibitors 194
  • Workability Agents 195
  • Grouting Agents 195
  • Corrosion Inhibiting Agents 196
  • Bonding Admixtures 196
  • Fungicidal, Germicidal and Insecticidal Admixtures 196
  • Colouring Agents 197
  • Miscellaneous Admixtures 197
  • Damp-proofers 197
  • Construction Chemicals 198
  • Membrane Forming Curing Compounds 200
  • Drying Behaviour 201
  • Types of Curing Compounds 201
  • Application Procedure 201
  • General Characteristics 202
  • (xvi)
  • Water Retention Test 203
  • Polymer Bonding Agents 204
  • Polymer Modified Mortar for Repair and Maintenance 204
  • Mould Releasing Agents 205
  • Installation Aids 205
  • Floor Hardners and Dust Proofers 206
  • Non-Shrink High Strength Grout 207
  • Surface Retarders 207
  • Bond Aid for Plastering 208
  • Ready to use Plaster 208
  • Guniting Aid 208
  • Construction Chemicals for Waterproofing 209
  • Integral Waterproofing Compound 210
  • Acrylic Based Polymer Coatings 210
  • Mineral Based Polymer Modified Coatings 211
  • Protective and Decorative Coatings 212
  • Chemical DPC 212
  • Waterproofing Adhesives for Tile, Marble and Granite 213
  • Silicone based Water Repellant Materials 214
  • Injection Grout for Cracks 214
  • Joint Sealants 215
  • Concrete Repair Systems 215
  • Stages for Repair Works 215

6. FRESH CONCRETE 218-297

  • Workability 219
  • Factors Affecting Workability 220
  • Water Content 220
  • Mix Proportions 220
  • Size of Aggregate 221
  • Shape of Aggregate 221
  • Surface Texture 221
  • Grading of Aggregate 221
  • Use of Admixture 221
  • Measurement of Workability 222
  • Slump Test 222
  • K-Slump Tester 224
  • Remarks 227
  • Compacting Factor Test 227
  • Flow Test 228
  • Flow Table Apparatus 229
  • Accessory Procedure 230
  • Kelly Ball Test 231
  • Vee Bee Consistometer Test 232
  • Segregation 233
  • Bleeding 234
  • Method of Test for Bleeding 236
  • (xvii)
  • Setting Time of Concrete 236
  • Process of Manufacture of Concrete 238
  • Batching 238
  • Volume Batching 238
  • Weigh Batching 240
  • Measurement of Water 241
  • Mixing 241
  • Hand Mixing 242
  • Machine Mixing 242
  • Mixing Time 245
  • Retempering 246
  • Maintenance of Mixer 247
  • Transporting 247
  • Mortar Pan 247
  • Wheel Barrow 248
  • Crane Bucket and Ropeway 249
  • Truck Mixer and Dumper 249
  • Belt Conveyors 249
  • Chute 249
  • Skip and Hoist 249
  • Transit Mixer 250
  • Pumps and Pipeline 251
  • Development of Concrete Pump 251
  • Concrete Pumps 251
  • Types of valve 252
  • Pipeline and Couplings 252
  • Laying the Pipeline 253
  • Capabilities of Concrete Pump 253
  • Pumpable Concrete 254
  • Design Consideration 255
  • Choosing Correct Pump 256
  • Common Problems 258
  • Clearing Blockages 259
  • Placing Concrete 259
  • Form Work 261
  • Stripping Time 261
  • Under Water Concreting 262
  • Compaction of Concrete 265
  • Hand Compaction 266
  • Compaction by Vibration 267
  • Internal Vibrator 268
  • Formwork Vibrator 268
  • Table Vibrator 269
  • Platform Vibrator 269
  • Surface Vibrator 269
  • Compaction by Pressure and Jolting 269
  • Compaction by Spinning 269
  • Vibratory Roller 269
  • (xviii)
  • General Points on Using Vibrators 270
  • Further Instructions on use of Vibrators 270
  • Height of Concrete Layer 271
  • Depth of Immersion of Vibrator 271
  • Spacing and Number of Insertion Positions 272
  • Speed of Insertion 272
  • Duration of Vibration 273
  • Vibrating Concrete at Junctions 273
  • Vibrating Reinforced Concrete 273
  • Vibrating Near the Form Work 273
  • Vibrating High Walls and Columns 276
  • Over Vibration 276
  • Output of Immersion Vibrations 276
  • Revibration 276
  • Vibration of Light-weight Concrete 277
  • Curing of Concrete 277
  • Curing methods 279
  • Water curing 279
  • Membrane curing 280
  • Application of Heat 281
  • Steam curing 282
  • High Pressure Steam curing 287
  • Curing by Infra-red Radiation 288
  • Electrical curing 289
  • Miscellaneous Methods of Curing 289
  • When to Start Curing 289
  • Finishing 291
  • Formwork Finishes 291
  • Surface Treatment 292
  • Exposed Aggregate Finish 293
  • Bush Hammering 293
  • Applied Finish 293
  • Miscellaneous Finish 294
  • Wear Resistant Floor Finish 294
  • Requirement of a Good Finish 295
  • Grinding and Polishing 295
  • Craziness 295
  • Whisper Concrete Finish 296

7. STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 298-324

  • General 298
  • Water / Cement Ratio 299
  • Gel / Space Ratio 301
  • Gain of Strength with Age 303
  • Accelerated Curing Test 306
  • Maturity Concept of Concrete 306
  • Effect of Maximum Size of Aggregate 311
  • (xix)
  • Relation between Compressive and Tensile Strength 311
  • Centre Point and Third Point Loading 314
  • Bond Strength 315
  • Aggregate Cement Bond Strength 316
  • High Strength Concrete 318
  • Seeding 319
  • Revibration 319
  • High Speed Slurry Mixing 319
  • Use of Admixture 319
  • Inhibition of Cracks 319
  • Sulphur Impregnation 319
  • Use of Cementitious Aggregate 319
  • Ultra High Strength Concrete 319
  • Compaction by Pressure 319
  • Helical Binding 320
  • Polymer Concrete 320
  • Reactive Powder Concrete 320
  • High-Performance Concrete (HPC) 321
  • Aggregates for HPC 322

8. ELASTICITY, CREEP AND SHRINKAGE 325-348

  • Elastic Properties of Aggregate 325
  • Relation between Modulus of Elasticity and Strength 328
  • Factors Affecting Modulus of Elasticity 329
  • Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity 331
  • Poison’s Ratio 332
  • Creep 332
  • Rheological Representation of Creep 333
  • Macroscopic Rheological Approach 333
  • Microscopic Rheological Approach 334
  • Hydration under Sustained Load 335
  • Measurement of Creep 336
  • Factors Affecting Creep 339
  • Influence of Aggregate 339
  • Influence of Mix Proportions 339
  • Influence of Age 339
  • Effect of Creep 339
  • Shrinkage 340
  • Plastic Shrinkage 341
  • Drying Shrinkage 343
  • Factors Affecting Shrinkage 344
  • Moisture Movement 347
  • Autogeneous Shrinkage 347
  • Carbonation Shrinkage 347

9. DURABILITY OF CONCRETE 349-419

  • General 349
  • Strength and Durability Relationship 350
  • (xx)
  • Volume Change in Concrete 352
  • Definition of Durability 352
  • Significance of Durability 352
  • Impact of W/C Ratio on Durability 353
  • Permeability 354
  • Permeability of Cement Paste 354
  • Permeability of Concrete 356
  • Interaction between Permeability, Volume Change and Cracking 357
  • Factors Contributing to Cracks in Concrete 361
  • Plastic Shrinkage Cracks 361
  • Settlement Cracks 362
  • Bleeding 362
  • Delayed Curing 362
  • Constructional Effects 363
  • Early Frost Damage 363
  • Unsound Materials 364
  • Shrinkage 364
  • Drying Shrinkage 365
  • Thermal Shrinkage 365
  • Thermal Conductivity 367
  • Thermal Diffusivity 368
  • Specific Heat 370
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 370
  • Mass Concrete 372
  • Thermal Expansion and Shrinkage 373
  • Extensibility 375
  • Joints in Concrete 376
  • Construction Joints 376
  • Expansion Joints 376
  • Contraction Joints 379
  • Isolation Joints 381
  • Concrete Subjected to High Temperature 382
  • Fire Resistance 382
  • Freezing and Thawing 383
  • Deicing Effects of Salts 387
  • Moisture Movements 387
  • Transition Zone 387
  • Biological Process 388
  • Structural Design Defficiencies 388
  • Chemical Action 389
  • Sulphate Attack 389
  • Methods of Controlling Sulphate Attack 390
  • Use of Sulphate Resisting Cement 390
  • Quality of Concrete 390
  • Use of Air-entrainment 390
  • Use of Pozzolana 390
  • High Pressure Steam Curing 390
  • Use of High Alumina Cement 390
  • (xxi)
  • Alkali-Aggregate Reaction 394
  • Acid Attack 395
  • Concrete in Sea Water 396
  • Carbonation 398
  • Rate of Carbonation 398
  • Measurement of Depth of Carbonation 400
  • Chloride Attack 400
  • Corrosion of Steel (Chloride Induced) 402
  • Corrosion Control 404
  • Metallurgical Methods 405
  • Corrosion Inhibitors 405
  • Coatings to Reinforcement 406
  • Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating 407
  • Galvanised Reinforcement 408
  • Cathodic Protection 408
  • Coatings to Concrete 408
  • Design and Detailing 409
  • Nominal Cover to Reinforcement 409
  • Crack Width 411
  • Deterioration of Concrete by Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation 411
  • Effects of Some Materials on Durability 412
  • Action of Mineral Oils 412
  • Action of Organic Acids 412
  • Vegetables and Animal Oils and Fats 412
  • Action of Sugar on Concrete 413
  • Action of Sewage 413
  • Surface Treatments of Concrete 413
  • Maximum Cement Content 415
  • Concluding Remarks on Durability 418

10. TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE 420-457

  • Compression Test 421
  • Moulds 422
  • Compacting 422
  • Compaction by Hand 423
  • Compaction by Vibration 423
  • Capping Specimens 424
  • Neat cement 424
  • Cement mortar 424
  • Sulphur 424
  • Hard plaster 425
  • Curing 425
  • Making and Curing Compression Test Specimen in the Field 425
  • Failure of Compression Specimen 425
  • Effect of Height / Diameter Ratio on Strength 427
  • Comparison between Cube and Cylinder Strength 428
  • Flexural Strength of Concrete 428
  • Determination of Tensile Strength 429
  • (xxii)
  • Procedure 431
  • Placing of Specimen in the Testing Machine 431
  • Indirect Tension Test Methods 433
  • Ring Tension Test 434
  • Advantage of ring tension test 434
  • Limitations of ring tension test 434
  • Double Punch Test 434
  • Factors Influencing the Strength Results 435
  • Test Cores 436
  • Strength of cores 437
  • Non-Destructive Testing Methods 437
  • Schmidt’s Rebound Hammer 439
  • Limitation 439
  • Rebound number and strength of concrete 440
  • Penetration Techniques 441
  • Pullout test 444
  • Dynamic or Vibration Method 444
  • Resonant Frequency Method 445
  • Usefulness of resonant frequency method 445
  • Pulse Velocity Method 446
  • Techniques of measuring pulse velocity through concrete 447
  • Factors affecting the measurement of pulse velocity 447
  • Smoothness of contact surace under test 447
  • Influence of path length on pulse velocity 448
  • Temperature of concrete 448
  • Moisture condition of concrete 448
  • Presence of reinforcement 448
  • Accuracy of measurement 449
  • Applications 449
  • Establishing uniformity of Concrete 449
  • Establishing acceptance criteria 449
  • Determination of pulse modulus of clasticity 450
  • Estimation of strength of concrete 450
  • Determination of setting characteristics of concrete 450
  • Studies on durability of concrete 450
  • Measurement of deteriration of concrete due to fire exposure 451
  • Relationship between Pulse Velocity and Static Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 452
  • Combined Methods 452
  • Radioactivity Methods 452
  • Nuclear Methods 453
  • Magnetic Methods 454
  • Electrical Methods 454
  • Tests on Composition of Hardened Concrete 454
  • Determination of Cement Content 454
  • Determination of Original w/c Ratio 455
  • Physical Method 455
  • Accelerated Curing Test 456

11. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 458-503

  • General 458
  • Concept of Mix Design 459
  • Variables in Proportioning 459
  • Various Methods of Proportioning 460
  • Statistical Quality Control of Concrete 460
  • Common Terminologies 461
  • Calculation of Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation 463
  • Relation between Average Design Strength and Specified Minimum Strength 463
  • American Concrete Institute Method of Mix Design 466
  • Data to be Collected 466
  • Example: ACI Committee 211.1–91 Method 471
  • Road Note Number 4 Method 473
  • DOE Method of Concrete Mix Design 474
  • Example — DOE Method 477
  • Concrete Mix Design Procedure for Concrete with Fly-Ash 482
  • Example of Mix Design with Fly-Ash with DOE Method 482
  • Mix Design for Pumpable Concrete 484
  • Example: Basic Design Calculations for a Pumpable Concrete Mix 488
  • Indian Standard Recommended Method of Concrete Mix Design 489
  • Illustrative Example of Concrete Mix Design 495
  • Rapid Method 498
  • Steps of Mix Design based on rapid method 499
  • Sampling and Acceptance Criteria 500
  • Frequency of Sampling 500
  • Test Specimen 501
  • Test Results 501
  • Acceptance Criteria 502
  • Compressive Strength 502
  • Flexural Strength 502
  • Inspection and Testing of Structures 502
  • Core Test 502
  • Load Test for Flexural Member 502
  • Non-destructive Test 503

12. SPECIAL CONCRETE AND CONCRETING METHODS 504-607

  • Special concrete 504
  • Light-weight concrete 506
  • Pumice 506
  • Diatomite 507
  • Scoria 507
  • Volcanic Cinders 507
  • Saw Dust 507
  • Rice Husk 507
  • Brick Bats 508
  • Cinder, Clinker and Breeze 508
  • Foamed Slag 508
  • Bloated Clay 509
  • Sintered Fly Ash 509
  • (xxiv)
  • Exfoliated Vermiculite 509
  • Expanded Perlite 509
  • Light-weight Aggregate Concrete 510
  • Structural Light-weight Concrete 513
  • Workability 513
  • Design of Light-weight Aggregate Concrete Mix 514
  • Mixing Procedure 514
  • Aerated Concrete 514
  • Proporties 516
  • No-fines Concrete 517
  • Mix Proportion 517
  • Drying Shrinkage 518
  • Thermal Conductivity 519
  • Application 519
  • High Density Concrete 520
  • Types of Radiation Hazards 521
  • Shielding Ability of Concrete 521
  • Concrete for Radiation Shielding 522
  • Sulphur-Infiltrated Concrete 525
  • Application 526
  • Fibre Reinforced Concrete 526
  • Fibres used 527
  • Factors Effecting Properties 528
  • Relative Fibre Matrix Stiffness 528
  • Volume of Fibres 528
  • Aspect Ratio of Fibres 529
  • Orientation of Fibres 529
  • Workability 530
  • Size of coarse Aggregate 530
  • Mixing 530
  • Application 531
  • Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement 531
  • Current Development in (FRC) 532
  • High Fibre Volume Micro-Fibre System 532
  • Slurry Infiltrated Fibre Concrete 532
  • Compact Reinforced Composites 532
  • Polymer Concrete 532
  • Type of Polymer Concrete 533
  • Polymer Impregnated Concrete 533
  • Polymer Cement Concrete 534
  • Polymer concrete 534
  • Partially Impregnated Concrete 535
  • Properties of Polymer Impregnated Concrete 536
  • Stress-Strain Relationship 536
  • Compressive Strength 536
  • Tensil Strength 537
  • Creep 539
  • Shrinkage due to Polymerisation 539
  • Durability 539
  • Water Absorption 540
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 540
  • (xxv)
  • Resistance to Abrasion 540
  • Wear and Skid Resistance 540
  • Fracture of Polymer Impregnated Concrete 540
  • Application of Polymer Impregnated Concrete 541
  • Cold Weather Concreting 542
  • Effects of Cold Weather on Concrete 542
  • Low Temperature but above 0°C 453
  • Low Temperature but below 0°C after Concreting 543
  • Temperature Below 0°C at the Time of Concreting 544
  • Hardened Concrete Subjected to Freezing and Thawing 544
  • Concreting Methods at Sub-zero Temperature 544
  • Hot Weather Concreting 552
  • Precautions Taken 554
  • Aggregates 554
  • Water 555
  • Production and Delivery 556
  • Prepacked Concrete 556
  • Vacuum Concrete 558
  • Rate of Extraction of Water 558
  • Vacuum Dewatered Concrete 560
  • Gunite or Shotcrete 562
  • Dry-Mix Process 562
  • Wet-Mix Process 563
  • Advantages of Wet and Dry Process 563
  • General Use of Shoterete 563
  • Concluding Remarks on Shotcrete 565
  • Recent Studies 566
  • Ferrocement 566
  • Casting Techniques 568
  • Hand Plastering 568
  • Semi-Mechanised Process 568
  • Centrifuging 569
  • Guniting 570
  • Application 570
  • Roller Compacted Concrete 570
  • Self compacting Concrete (SCC) 572
  • Material for SCC 573
  • Example of SCC Mixes 574
  • Requirements for self-compacting concrete 575
  • Workability Requirement for the fresh SCC 576
  • Production and Placing 577
  • Mix Design 577
  • Test Methods 578
  • Slump flow Test 579
  • J-ring test 580
  • V-Funnel Test 581
  • L-Box test method 582
  • U-Box Test 583
  • Full Box Test 584
  • Orimet test 587
  • Complexities involved in making SCC 588
  • New Generation Plasticizers 589
  • Indian Scenario of SCC 590
  • (xxvi)
  • Experience of Delhi Metro Project 590
  • Experience of Mock-up Trials at Tarapur Atomic
  • Power Project 591
  • Use of SCC Kaiga 592
  • Trials at SERC Chennai 594
  • Study at Hong Kong 595
  • How economical is Self Compacting Concrete 597
  • Bacterial Concrete 598
  • Experimental Investigations 598
  • Zeopolymer Concrete 599
  • Basalt fibre concrete and concre reinforced with basalt fibre reinforcements 602
  • General Reference Books 608-611
  • List of Indian Standard Specifications and Code
  • of Pratices, Related to Cement and Concrete 612-616
  • Subject Index 617-624