Category Archives: CVX3530

Construction Materials

Concrete Technology – Theory and Practice

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Index Of the Book

 

1. CEMENT 1–26

  • General 1
  • Early History of Modern Cement 2
  • Manufacture of Portland Cement 5
  • Wet Process 6
  • Dry Process 9
  • Chemical Composition 14
  • Hydration of Cement 17
  • Heat of Hydration 18
  • Calcium Silicate Hydrates 19
  • Calcium Hydroxide 20
  • Calcium Aluminate Hydrates 21
  • Structure of Hydrated Cement 22
  • Transition Zone 22
  • Water Requirements for Hydration 25

2. TYPES OF CEMENT AND TESTING OF CEMENT 27-65

  • Types of Cement Types of Cement 28 Types of Cement
  • ASTM Classification 28
  • Ordinary Portland Cement 29
  • Rapid Hardening Cement 30
  • Extra Rapid Hardening Cement 30
  • Sulphate Resisting Cement 31
  • Portland Slag Cement 31
  • Application of GGBS Concrete 33
  • Quick Setting Cement 33
  • Super Sulphated Cement 34
  • Low Heat Cement 34
  • Portland Pozzolana Cement 35
  • Advantages of PPC 36
  • Grading of PPC 37
  • Application 37
  • Air-Entraining Cement 37
  • Coloured Cement 38
  • Hydrophobic Cement 39
  • Masonry Cement 39
  • Expansive Cement 40
  • IRS-T40 Special Grade Cement 40
  • Oil-Well Cement 41
  • Rediset Cement 41
  • CONTENTS
  • (xii)
  • Properties of Rediset 41
  • Applications 42
  • High Alumina Cement 42
  • Hydration of High Alumina Cement 42
  • High Alumina Cement Concrete 43
  • Refractory Concrete 44
  • Very High Strength Cement 45
  • Macro-defect free Cement 45
  • Densely Packed System 45
  • Pressure Densification and Warm Pressing 45
  • High Early Strength Cement 46
  • Pyrament Cement 46
  • Magnesium Phosphate Cement 46
  • Testing of Cement Testing of Cement 47 Testing of Cement
  • Field Testing 47
  • Fineness Test 48
  • Sieve Test 49
  • Air Permeability Method 49
  • Standard Consistency Test 50
  • Setting Time Test 50
  • Initial Setting Time 52
  • Final Setting Time 53
  • Strength Test 53
  • Soundness Test 54
  • Heat of Hydration 55
  • Chemical Composition Test 56
  • Test Certificate 56

3. AGGREGATES AND TESTING OF AGGREGATES 66-118

  • General 66
  • Classification 67
  • Source 67
  • Aggregates from Igneous Rocks 68
  • Aggregates from Sedimentary Rocks 68
  • Aggregates from Metamorphic Rocks 68
  • Size 69
  • Shape 70
  • Texture 73
  • Measurement of Surface Texture 74
  • Strength 74
  • Aggregate Crushing Value 75
  • Aggregate Impact Value 76
  • Aggregate Abrasion Value 76
  • Deval Attrition Test 76
  • Dorry Abrasion Test 76
  • Los Angeles Test 77
  • Modulus of Elasticity 77
  • Bulk Density 78
  • (xiii)
  • Specific Gravity 78
  • Absorption and Moisture Content 78
  • Bulking of Aggregate 80
  • Measurement of Moisture Content of Aggregates 81
  • Drying Method 82
  • Displacement Method 82
  • Calcium Carbide Method 82
  • Electrical Meter Method 82
  • Automatic Measurement 82
  • Cleanliness 83
  • Soundness of Aggregate 85
  • Alkali-Aggregate Reaction 85
  • Factors Promoting Alkali-Aggregate Reaction 86
  • High Alkali Content in Cement 88
  • Availability of Moisture 89
  • Temperature Condition 89
  • Mechanism of Deterioration of Concrete 89
  • Control of Alkali Aggregate Reaction 89
  • Thermal Properties 90
  • Grading of Aggregates 91
  • Sieve Analysis 93
  • Combining Aggregates to obtain Specified Gradings 94
  • Specific Surface and Surface Index 96
  • Standard Grading Curve 100
  • Crushed Sand 105
  • Gap Grading 107
  • Testing of Aggregates 107 Testing of Aggregates
  • Test for Determination of Flakiness Index 107
  • Test for Determination of Elongation Index 109
  • Test for Determination of Clay and Fine Silt 110
  • Test for Determination of Organic Impurities 111
  • Test for Determination of Specific Gravity 112
  • Test for Bulk Density and Voids 112
  • Mechanical Properties of Aggregates 113
  • Test for Aggregate Crushing Value 113
  • Test for “Ten per cent Fines” Value 114
  • Test for Aggregate Impact Value 114
  • Test for Aggregate Abrasion Value 115

4. WATER 119-123

  • Qualities of Water 119
  • Use of Sea Water for Mixing Concrete 122

5. ADMIXTURES AND CONSTRUCTION CHEMICALS 124-217

  • General 124
  • Admimxtures 125
  • Construction Chemicals 126
  • Plasticizers (Water Reducers) 126
  • (xiv)
  • Action of Plasticizers 128
  • Dispersion 128
  • Retarding Effect 128
  • Superplasticizers (High Range Water Reducers) 129
  • Classification of Superplasticizer 130
  • Effect of Superplasticizers on Fresh Concrete 131
  • Compatibility of Superplasticizers and Cement 131
  • Factors Effecting Workability 136
  • Type of Superplasticizers 136
  • Dosage 136
  • Mix Composition 137
  • Variability in Cement Composition 137
  • Mixing Procedure 137
  • Equipment 138
  • Site Problems in the use of Superplasticizers 138
  • Slump Loss 140
  • Steps for Reducing Slump Loss 140
  • Other Potential Problems 142
  • Effect of Superplasticizers on the Properties of Hardened Concrete 143
  • New Generation Superplasticizers 144
  • Carboxylated Acrylic Ester (CAE) 144
  • Multicarboxylatether (MCE) 147
  • Retarders 148
  • Retarding Plasticizers 149
  • Accelerators 149
  • Accelerating Plasticizers 158
  • Air-entraining Admixtures 158
  • Air-entraining Agents 159
  • Factors Affecting Amount of Air-entrainment 159
  • The Effect of Air-entrainment on the Properties of Concrete 160
  • Resistance to Freezing and Thawing 161
  • Effect on Workability 162
  • Effect on Strength 163
  • Effect on Segregation and Bleeding 166
  • Effect on Permeability 169
  • Effect on Chemical Resistance 169
  • Effect on Sand, Water and Cement Content 169
  • Unit Weight 170
  • Alkali Aggregate Reaction 170
  • Modulus of Elasticity 170
  • Abrasion Resistance 170
  • Optimum Air Content in Concrete 171
  • Measurement of Air Content 171
  • Gravimetric Method 171
  • Volumetric Method 173
  • Pressure Method 173
  • The Water Type Meter 173
  • Pozzolanic or Mineral Admixtures 174
  • (xv)
  • Pozzolanic Materials 175
  • Natural Pozzolans 175
  • Artificial Pozzolans 175
  • Fly Ash 176
  • Effect of Fly Ash on Fresh Concrete 179
  • Effect of Fly Ash on Hardened Concrete 180
  • Durability of Concrete 180
  • High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFA) 180
  • Properties of (HVFA) Fresh Concrete 181
  • Bleeding and Setting Time 181
  • Heat of Hydration 182
  • Curing of (HVFA) Concrete 182
  • Mechanical Properties of (HVFA) Concrete 182
  • Durability of (HVFA) Concrete 182
  • Use of High Volume Fly Ash 183
  • Silica Fume 183
  • Indian Scenario 184
  • Available Forms 184
  • Pozzolanic Action 185
  • Influence on Fresh Concrete 185
  • Influence on Hardened Concrete 186
  • Mixing 186
  • Curing 186
  • Rice Husk Ash 186
  • Surkhi 187
  • Metakaolin 188
  • Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) 189
  • Performance of GGBS in Concrete 191
  • Fresh Concrete 191
  • Hardened Concrete 191
  • Damp-Proofing and Water-Proofing Admixtures 192
  • Gas Forming Agents 193
  • Air-Detraining Agents 194
  • Alkali Aggregate Expansion Inhibitors 194
  • Workability Agents 195
  • Grouting Agents 195
  • Corrosion Inhibiting Agents 196
  • Bonding Admixtures 196
  • Fungicidal, Germicidal and Insecticidal Admixtures 196
  • Colouring Agents 197
  • Miscellaneous Admixtures 197
  • Damp-proofers 197
  • Construction Chemicals 198
  • Membrane Forming Curing Compounds 200
  • Drying Behaviour 201
  • Types of Curing Compounds 201
  • Application Procedure 201
  • General Characteristics 202
  • (xvi)
  • Water Retention Test 203
  • Polymer Bonding Agents 204
  • Polymer Modified Mortar for Repair and Maintenance 204
  • Mould Releasing Agents 205
  • Installation Aids 205
  • Floor Hardners and Dust Proofers 206
  • Non-Shrink High Strength Grout 207
  • Surface Retarders 207
  • Bond Aid for Plastering 208
  • Ready to use Plaster 208
  • Guniting Aid 208
  • Construction Chemicals for Waterproofing 209
  • Integral Waterproofing Compound 210
  • Acrylic Based Polymer Coatings 210
  • Mineral Based Polymer Modified Coatings 211
  • Protective and Decorative Coatings 212
  • Chemical DPC 212
  • Waterproofing Adhesives for Tile, Marble and Granite 213
  • Silicone based Water Repellant Materials 214
  • Injection Grout for Cracks 214
  • Joint Sealants 215
  • Concrete Repair Systems 215
  • Stages for Repair Works 215

6. FRESH CONCRETE 218-297

  • Workability 219
  • Factors Affecting Workability 220
  • Water Content 220
  • Mix Proportions 220
  • Size of Aggregate 221
  • Shape of Aggregate 221
  • Surface Texture 221
  • Grading of Aggregate 221
  • Use of Admixture 221
  • Measurement of Workability 222
  • Slump Test 222
  • K-Slump Tester 224
  • Remarks 227
  • Compacting Factor Test 227
  • Flow Test 228
  • Flow Table Apparatus 229
  • Accessory Procedure 230
  • Kelly Ball Test 231
  • Vee Bee Consistometer Test 232
  • Segregation 233
  • Bleeding 234
  • Method of Test for Bleeding 236
  • (xvii)
  • Setting Time of Concrete 236
  • Process of Manufacture of Concrete 238
  • Batching 238
  • Volume Batching 238
  • Weigh Batching 240
  • Measurement of Water 241
  • Mixing 241
  • Hand Mixing 242
  • Machine Mixing 242
  • Mixing Time 245
  • Retempering 246
  • Maintenance of Mixer 247
  • Transporting 247
  • Mortar Pan 247
  • Wheel Barrow 248
  • Crane Bucket and Ropeway 249
  • Truck Mixer and Dumper 249
  • Belt Conveyors 249
  • Chute 249
  • Skip and Hoist 249
  • Transit Mixer 250
  • Pumps and Pipeline 251
  • Development of Concrete Pump 251
  • Concrete Pumps 251
  • Types of valve 252
  • Pipeline and Couplings 252
  • Laying the Pipeline 253
  • Capabilities of Concrete Pump 253
  • Pumpable Concrete 254
  • Design Consideration 255
  • Choosing Correct Pump 256
  • Common Problems 258
  • Clearing Blockages 259
  • Placing Concrete 259
  • Form Work 261
  • Stripping Time 261
  • Under Water Concreting 262
  • Compaction of Concrete 265
  • Hand Compaction 266
  • Compaction by Vibration 267
  • Internal Vibrator 268
  • Formwork Vibrator 268
  • Table Vibrator 269
  • Platform Vibrator 269
  • Surface Vibrator 269
  • Compaction by Pressure and Jolting 269
  • Compaction by Spinning 269
  • Vibratory Roller 269
  • (xviii)
  • General Points on Using Vibrators 270
  • Further Instructions on use of Vibrators 270
  • Height of Concrete Layer 271
  • Depth of Immersion of Vibrator 271
  • Spacing and Number of Insertion Positions 272
  • Speed of Insertion 272
  • Duration of Vibration 273
  • Vibrating Concrete at Junctions 273
  • Vibrating Reinforced Concrete 273
  • Vibrating Near the Form Work 273
  • Vibrating High Walls and Columns 276
  • Over Vibration 276
  • Output of Immersion Vibrations 276
  • Revibration 276
  • Vibration of Light-weight Concrete 277
  • Curing of Concrete 277
  • Curing methods 279
  • Water curing 279
  • Membrane curing 280
  • Application of Heat 281
  • Steam curing 282
  • High Pressure Steam curing 287
  • Curing by Infra-red Radiation 288
  • Electrical curing 289
  • Miscellaneous Methods of Curing 289
  • When to Start Curing 289
  • Finishing 291
  • Formwork Finishes 291
  • Surface Treatment 292
  • Exposed Aggregate Finish 293
  • Bush Hammering 293
  • Applied Finish 293
  • Miscellaneous Finish 294
  • Wear Resistant Floor Finish 294
  • Requirement of a Good Finish 295
  • Grinding and Polishing 295
  • Craziness 295
  • Whisper Concrete Finish 296

7. STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 298-324

  • General 298
  • Water / Cement Ratio 299
  • Gel / Space Ratio 301
  • Gain of Strength with Age 303
  • Accelerated Curing Test 306
  • Maturity Concept of Concrete 306
  • Effect of Maximum Size of Aggregate 311
  • (xix)
  • Relation between Compressive and Tensile Strength 311
  • Centre Point and Third Point Loading 314
  • Bond Strength 315
  • Aggregate Cement Bond Strength 316
  • High Strength Concrete 318
  • Seeding 319
  • Revibration 319
  • High Speed Slurry Mixing 319
  • Use of Admixture 319
  • Inhibition of Cracks 319
  • Sulphur Impregnation 319
  • Use of Cementitious Aggregate 319
  • Ultra High Strength Concrete 319
  • Compaction by Pressure 319
  • Helical Binding 320
  • Polymer Concrete 320
  • Reactive Powder Concrete 320
  • High-Performance Concrete (HPC) 321
  • Aggregates for HPC 322

8. ELASTICITY, CREEP AND SHRINKAGE 325-348

  • Elastic Properties of Aggregate 325
  • Relation between Modulus of Elasticity and Strength 328
  • Factors Affecting Modulus of Elasticity 329
  • Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity 331
  • Poison’s Ratio 332
  • Creep 332
  • Rheological Representation of Creep 333
  • Macroscopic Rheological Approach 333
  • Microscopic Rheological Approach 334
  • Hydration under Sustained Load 335
  • Measurement of Creep 336
  • Factors Affecting Creep 339
  • Influence of Aggregate 339
  • Influence of Mix Proportions 339
  • Influence of Age 339
  • Effect of Creep 339
  • Shrinkage 340
  • Plastic Shrinkage 341
  • Drying Shrinkage 343
  • Factors Affecting Shrinkage 344
  • Moisture Movement 347
  • Autogeneous Shrinkage 347
  • Carbonation Shrinkage 347

9. DURABILITY OF CONCRETE 349-419

  • General 349
  • Strength and Durability Relationship 350
  • (xx)
  • Volume Change in Concrete 352
  • Definition of Durability 352
  • Significance of Durability 352
  • Impact of W/C Ratio on Durability 353
  • Permeability 354
  • Permeability of Cement Paste 354
  • Permeability of Concrete 356
  • Interaction between Permeability, Volume Change and Cracking 357
  • Factors Contributing to Cracks in Concrete 361
  • Plastic Shrinkage Cracks 361
  • Settlement Cracks 362
  • Bleeding 362
  • Delayed Curing 362
  • Constructional Effects 363
  • Early Frost Damage 363
  • Unsound Materials 364
  • Shrinkage 364
  • Drying Shrinkage 365
  • Thermal Shrinkage 365
  • Thermal Conductivity 367
  • Thermal Diffusivity 368
  • Specific Heat 370
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 370
  • Mass Concrete 372
  • Thermal Expansion and Shrinkage 373
  • Extensibility 375
  • Joints in Concrete 376
  • Construction Joints 376
  • Expansion Joints 376
  • Contraction Joints 379
  • Isolation Joints 381
  • Concrete Subjected to High Temperature 382
  • Fire Resistance 382
  • Freezing and Thawing 383
  • Deicing Effects of Salts 387
  • Moisture Movements 387
  • Transition Zone 387
  • Biological Process 388
  • Structural Design Defficiencies 388
  • Chemical Action 389
  • Sulphate Attack 389
  • Methods of Controlling Sulphate Attack 390
  • Use of Sulphate Resisting Cement 390
  • Quality of Concrete 390
  • Use of Air-entrainment 390
  • Use of Pozzolana 390
  • High Pressure Steam Curing 390
  • Use of High Alumina Cement 390
  • (xxi)
  • Alkali-Aggregate Reaction 394
  • Acid Attack 395
  • Concrete in Sea Water 396
  • Carbonation 398
  • Rate of Carbonation 398
  • Measurement of Depth of Carbonation 400
  • Chloride Attack 400
  • Corrosion of Steel (Chloride Induced) 402
  • Corrosion Control 404
  • Metallurgical Methods 405
  • Corrosion Inhibitors 405
  • Coatings to Reinforcement 406
  • Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating 407
  • Galvanised Reinforcement 408
  • Cathodic Protection 408
  • Coatings to Concrete 408
  • Design and Detailing 409
  • Nominal Cover to Reinforcement 409
  • Crack Width 411
  • Deterioration of Concrete by Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation 411
  • Effects of Some Materials on Durability 412
  • Action of Mineral Oils 412
  • Action of Organic Acids 412
  • Vegetables and Animal Oils and Fats 412
  • Action of Sugar on Concrete 413
  • Action of Sewage 413
  • Surface Treatments of Concrete 413
  • Maximum Cement Content 415
  • Concluding Remarks on Durability 418

10. TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE 420-457

  • Compression Test 421
  • Moulds 422
  • Compacting 422
  • Compaction by Hand 423
  • Compaction by Vibration 423
  • Capping Specimens 424
  • Neat cement 424
  • Cement mortar 424
  • Sulphur 424
  • Hard plaster 425
  • Curing 425
  • Making and Curing Compression Test Specimen in the Field 425
  • Failure of Compression Specimen 425
  • Effect of Height / Diameter Ratio on Strength 427
  • Comparison between Cube and Cylinder Strength 428
  • Flexural Strength of Concrete 428
  • Determination of Tensile Strength 429
  • (xxii)
  • Procedure 431
  • Placing of Specimen in the Testing Machine 431
  • Indirect Tension Test Methods 433
  • Ring Tension Test 434
  • Advantage of ring tension test 434
  • Limitations of ring tension test 434
  • Double Punch Test 434
  • Factors Influencing the Strength Results 435
  • Test Cores 436
  • Strength of cores 437
  • Non-Destructive Testing Methods 437
  • Schmidt’s Rebound Hammer 439
  • Limitation 439
  • Rebound number and strength of concrete 440
  • Penetration Techniques 441
  • Pullout test 444
  • Dynamic or Vibration Method 444
  • Resonant Frequency Method 445
  • Usefulness of resonant frequency method 445
  • Pulse Velocity Method 446
  • Techniques of measuring pulse velocity through concrete 447
  • Factors affecting the measurement of pulse velocity 447
  • Smoothness of contact surace under test 447
  • Influence of path length on pulse velocity 448
  • Temperature of concrete 448
  • Moisture condition of concrete 448
  • Presence of reinforcement 448
  • Accuracy of measurement 449
  • Applications 449
  • Establishing uniformity of Concrete 449
  • Establishing acceptance criteria 449
  • Determination of pulse modulus of clasticity 450
  • Estimation of strength of concrete 450
  • Determination of setting characteristics of concrete 450
  • Studies on durability of concrete 450
  • Measurement of deteriration of concrete due to fire exposure 451
  • Relationship between Pulse Velocity and Static Young’s Modulus of Elasticity 452
  • Combined Methods 452
  • Radioactivity Methods 452
  • Nuclear Methods 453
  • Magnetic Methods 454
  • Electrical Methods 454
  • Tests on Composition of Hardened Concrete 454
  • Determination of Cement Content 454
  • Determination of Original w/c Ratio 455
  • Physical Method 455
  • Accelerated Curing Test 456

11. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 458-503

  • General 458
  • Concept of Mix Design 459
  • Variables in Proportioning 459
  • Various Methods of Proportioning 460
  • Statistical Quality Control of Concrete 460
  • Common Terminologies 461
  • Calculation of Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation 463
  • Relation between Average Design Strength and Specified Minimum Strength 463
  • American Concrete Institute Method of Mix Design 466
  • Data to be Collected 466
  • Example: ACI Committee 211.1–91 Method 471
  • Road Note Number 4 Method 473
  • DOE Method of Concrete Mix Design 474
  • Example — DOE Method 477
  • Concrete Mix Design Procedure for Concrete with Fly-Ash 482
  • Example of Mix Design with Fly-Ash with DOE Method 482
  • Mix Design for Pumpable Concrete 484
  • Example: Basic Design Calculations for a Pumpable Concrete Mix 488
  • Indian Standard Recommended Method of Concrete Mix Design 489
  • Illustrative Example of Concrete Mix Design 495
  • Rapid Method 498
  • Steps of Mix Design based on rapid method 499
  • Sampling and Acceptance Criteria 500
  • Frequency of Sampling 500
  • Test Specimen 501
  • Test Results 501
  • Acceptance Criteria 502
  • Compressive Strength 502
  • Flexural Strength 502
  • Inspection and Testing of Structures 502
  • Core Test 502
  • Load Test for Flexural Member 502
  • Non-destructive Test 503

12. SPECIAL CONCRETE AND CONCRETING METHODS 504-607

  • Special concrete 504
  • Light-weight concrete 506
  • Pumice 506
  • Diatomite 507
  • Scoria 507
  • Volcanic Cinders 507
  • Saw Dust 507
  • Rice Husk 507
  • Brick Bats 508
  • Cinder, Clinker and Breeze 508
  • Foamed Slag 508
  • Bloated Clay 509
  • Sintered Fly Ash 509
  • (xxiv)
  • Exfoliated Vermiculite 509
  • Expanded Perlite 509
  • Light-weight Aggregate Concrete 510
  • Structural Light-weight Concrete 513
  • Workability 513
  • Design of Light-weight Aggregate Concrete Mix 514
  • Mixing Procedure 514
  • Aerated Concrete 514
  • Proporties 516
  • No-fines Concrete 517
  • Mix Proportion 517
  • Drying Shrinkage 518
  • Thermal Conductivity 519
  • Application 519
  • High Density Concrete 520
  • Types of Radiation Hazards 521
  • Shielding Ability of Concrete 521
  • Concrete for Radiation Shielding 522
  • Sulphur-Infiltrated Concrete 525
  • Application 526
  • Fibre Reinforced Concrete 526
  • Fibres used 527
  • Factors Effecting Properties 528
  • Relative Fibre Matrix Stiffness 528
  • Volume of Fibres 528
  • Aspect Ratio of Fibres 529
  • Orientation of Fibres 529
  • Workability 530
  • Size of coarse Aggregate 530
  • Mixing 530
  • Application 531
  • Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement 531
  • Current Development in (FRC) 532
  • High Fibre Volume Micro-Fibre System 532
  • Slurry Infiltrated Fibre Concrete 532
  • Compact Reinforced Composites 532
  • Polymer Concrete 532
  • Type of Polymer Concrete 533
  • Polymer Impregnated Concrete 533
  • Polymer Cement Concrete 534
  • Polymer concrete 534
  • Partially Impregnated Concrete 535
  • Properties of Polymer Impregnated Concrete 536
  • Stress-Strain Relationship 536
  • Compressive Strength 536
  • Tensil Strength 537
  • Creep 539
  • Shrinkage due to Polymerisation 539
  • Durability 539
  • Water Absorption 540
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 540
  • (xxv)
  • Resistance to Abrasion 540
  • Wear and Skid Resistance 540
  • Fracture of Polymer Impregnated Concrete 540
  • Application of Polymer Impregnated Concrete 541
  • Cold Weather Concreting 542
  • Effects of Cold Weather on Concrete 542
  • Low Temperature but above 0°C 453
  • Low Temperature but below 0°C after Concreting 543
  • Temperature Below 0°C at the Time of Concreting 544
  • Hardened Concrete Subjected to Freezing and Thawing 544
  • Concreting Methods at Sub-zero Temperature 544
  • Hot Weather Concreting 552
  • Precautions Taken 554
  • Aggregates 554
  • Water 555
  • Production and Delivery 556
  • Prepacked Concrete 556
  • Vacuum Concrete 558
  • Rate of Extraction of Water 558
  • Vacuum Dewatered Concrete 560
  • Gunite or Shotcrete 562
  • Dry-Mix Process 562
  • Wet-Mix Process 563
  • Advantages of Wet and Dry Process 563
  • General Use of Shoterete 563
  • Concluding Remarks on Shotcrete 565
  • Recent Studies 566
  • Ferrocement 566
  • Casting Techniques 568
  • Hand Plastering 568
  • Semi-Mechanised Process 568
  • Centrifuging 569
  • Guniting 570
  • Application 570
  • Roller Compacted Concrete 570
  • Self compacting Concrete (SCC) 572
  • Material for SCC 573
  • Example of SCC Mixes 574
  • Requirements for self-compacting concrete 575
  • Workability Requirement for the fresh SCC 576
  • Production and Placing 577
  • Mix Design 577
  • Test Methods 578
  • Slump flow Test 579
  • J-ring test 580
  • V-Funnel Test 581
  • L-Box test method 582
  • U-Box Test 583
  • Full Box Test 584
  • Orimet test 587
  • Complexities involved in making SCC 588
  • New Generation Plasticizers 589
  • Indian Scenario of SCC 590
  • (xxvi)
  • Experience of Delhi Metro Project 590
  • Experience of Mock-up Trials at Tarapur Atomic
  • Power Project 591
  • Use of SCC Kaiga 592
  • Trials at SERC Chennai 594
  • Study at Hong Kong 595
  • How economical is Self Compacting Concrete 597
  • Bacterial Concrete 598
  • Experimental Investigations 598
  • Zeopolymer Concrete 599
  • Basalt fibre concrete and concre reinforced with basalt fibre reinforcements 602
  • General Reference Books 608-611
  • List of Indian Standard Specifications and Code
  • of Pratices, Related to Cement and Concrete 612-616
  • Subject Index 617-624

Civil Engineering – student reading tutorial

Included Topics


  • foundations
  • Determining depth of a foundation
  • How to improve soil characteristics
  • Factors Affecting Selection of Foundation
  • Caisson Foundation
  • Selection  criteria for foundation for buildings
  • Types of Foundation and their Uses
  • What is  workability  of Concrete?
  • PROPERTIES OF HARDENED CONCRETE
  • FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
  • SELECTION OF DURABLE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
  • EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE PROPERTIES ON CONCRETE
  • TYPES OF CHEMICAL ATTACKS ON CONCRETE STRUCTURES
  • STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR CONCRETE
  • CONCRETE CREEP
  • Cement classification
  • Types of Cement, their Composition and Uses

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